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A Discussion of Deor or The Lament of Deor (from wikipedia)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the character in J. R. R. Tolkien’s legendarium, see Déor.

Deor” (or “The Lament of Deor“) is an Old English poem found in the late 10th century collection[1] the Exeter Book. The poem consists of the lament of the scop Deor, who lends his name to the poem, which was given no formal title; modern scholars do not actually believe Deor to be the author of this poem.

In the poem, Deor’s lord has replaced him. Deor mentions various figures from Germanic mythology and reconciles his own troubles with the troubles these figures faced, ending each section with the refrain “that passed away, so may this.” The poem Deor begins with the struggles and misfortunes of a character named Weland. The poem consists of 42 alliterative lines.



Attempts at placing this poem within a genre have proven to be quite difficult. Some commentators attempting to characterise the work have called it an ubi sunt (“where are they?”) poem because of its meditations on transience. It can also be considered a traditional lament and poem of consolation. Christian consolation poems, however, usually attempt to subsume personal miseries in a historical or explicitly metaphysical context (e.g., Boethius‘s Consolation of Philosophy), and such perspectives are somewhat remote from the tradition of Anglo-Saxon poetry. Medievalist scholars who have viewed the poem within the Anglo-Saxon tradition have therefore seen it primarily as a begging poem—a poem written by a travelling and begging poet who is without a place at a noble court—although because few other begging poems survive, assigning it to such a genre is somewhat speculative. Others have related “Deor” to other melancholy poems in the Exeter Book, such as “The Seafarer” and “The Wanderer“.

John Miles Foley has hypothesized that the apparent murkiness of “Deor” is also in no small part attributable to the obscurity of the poet’s references. As he puts it, “Cut off from its traditional background, ‘Deor’ makes little sense”.[2] Because the poem is not entirely translatable into modern English—the third and fourth stanzas remain indeterminate to this day, and even the refrain prompts argument and poses linguistic difficulties—without grasping the allusions of the poem, it is quite difficult to understand the poet’s implied attitude, and therefore to place it in any genre satisfactorily. Further, given the mass loss of Anglo-Saxon literature, it is possible that constraining the poem to an existing genre is artificial, for the poem may represent yet another, otherwise unattested genre, or it might well stand alone outside of generic rules.


The language in the poetry is highly nuanced, and it is difficult for any translation into Modern English to capture the tensions present in the highly dense and parsimonious wording. The poem runs through a list of legendary figures, asks what happened to them, and then responds with a refrain of “Þæs ofereode, þisses swa mæg!” (“that was overcome [with respect to it], this may also be [with respect to it]”).

Grammatical difficulties are easily glossed over in most translations: for example, the Anglo-Saxon “þæs” and “þisses” of the refrain are both genitive, not nominative. A more correct and literal translation would read “of that went away, and so may of this”—which is difficult to make sense of in Modern English. Reinserting an elided “it” might render “It (sorrow) went away from that (situation), (and) so it (sorrow) may from this (situation).”

Deor becomes known as a unique poem because the poet decides to add himself into the narration. This poet decides to reflect on others from the past that have struggled with a situation similar to his. The poet uses historical events and stories to somewhat put at ease any misfortunes in the mind of the audience while at the same time trying to prepare them for the worst, and let them know that they need to be ready to suffer, ready to be mistreated.


The poem Deor is a lament by its namesake about his exile from his life of luxury, respect, and popularity. He compares his current predicament to the predicaments of figures from Anglo-Saxon folklore. Among the miseries and dismal fates that Deor runs through are those of Theodoric the GreatErmanaric of the Goths, the mythological smith Wayland, and Wayland’s victim Beadohilde (the daughter ofWayland’s captor; he raped her and she finds herself with child). Each suffered an undeserved fate, and in each case “that passed away with respect to it, and so may this.” But this refrain can point at two very different statements: first, that remedy came about, one way or another, in each situation, or, alternatively, that the continuous flow of time (a favourite Anglo-Saxon topic) erases all pain (though not necessarily healing all wounds).

Only in the last stanza do we learn what “this” references: the poet’s own sorrow at having lost his position of privilege. At the poem’s conclusion, Deor reveals that he was once a great poet among theHeodenings, until he was displaced and sent wandering by Heorrenda, a more skillful poet. According to Norse mythology, the Heodenings (Hjaðningar) were involved in the never-ending “battle of the Heodenings”, the Hjaðningavíg.[3] Heorrenda (Hjarrandi) was one of the names of the god Odin.


Weland, the strong man, had experience of persecution; he suffered a lot. Sorrow and longing were his companions, along with exile in the cold winter; he experience misfortunes after Nithad laid constraints upon him, supple bonds of sinew on a better man.

That went away, this also may.

In Beadchild’s mind her brothers’ death was not as grieving as her own situation, when she realized she was pregnant; she couldn’t fathom the outcome.

That went away, this also may.

Many of us have heard that the Geat’s love for Maethild passed all bounds, that his love robbed him of his sleep.

That went away, this also may.

For thirty years, Theodric ruled the stronghold of the Maerings; which has become common knowledge.

That went away, this also may.

We have learned of Eormanric’s ferocious disposition; a cruel man, he held dominion in the kingdom of the Goths. Many men sat, full of sorrow, anticipating trouble and constantly praying for the fall of his country.

That went away, this also may.

If a man sits in despair, deprived of joy, with gloomy thoughts in his heart; it seems to him that there is no end to his suffering. Then he should remember that the wise Lord follows different courses throughout the earth; to many he grants glory, certainty, yet, misery to some. I will say this about myself, once I was a minstrel of the Heodeningas, my Lord’s favorite. My name was Deor. For many years I had an excellent office and a gracious Lord, until now Heorrenda, a skillful man, has inherited the land once given to me by the protector of warriors.

That went away, this also may.

See also[edit]


  1. Jump up^ Fell, Christine (2007). “Perceptions of Transience”. In Malcolm Godden and Michael LapidgeThe Cambridge Companion to Old English Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. pp. 172–89. ISBN 978-0-521-37794-2.
  2. Jump up^ Foley, John Miles. Homer’s Traditional Art. University Park: Penn State University Press, 1999.
  3. Jump up^ Malone, Kemp. “An Anglo-Latin Version of the Hjadningavig”. Speculum, Vol. 39, No. 1 (Jan. 1964), pp. 35–44.

External links[edit]

A Discussion of The Seafarer (from Wikipedia)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Seafarer is an Old English poem recorded in the Exeter Book, one of the four surviving manuscripts of Old English poetry. It consists of 124 lines, followed by the single word “Amen”. In the past it has been frequently referred to as an elegy, a poem that mourns a loss, or has the more general meaning of a simply sorrowful piece of writing. Some scholars, however, have argued that the content of the poem also links it with Sapiential Books, or Wisdom Literature. This category of literature mainly consists of proverbs and maxims and is used with reference to Old Testament books. The Seafarer has “significant sapiential material concerning the definition of wise men, the ages of the world, and the necessity for patience in adversity” (Hill 806). Wisdom Literature may also apply to The Seafarer from a Christian viewpoint.

In his account of the poem in the Cambridge Old English Reader, published in 2004, Richard Marsden writes, “It is an exhortatory and didactic poem, in which the miseries of winter seafaring are used as a metaphor for the challenge faced by the committed Christian…” (221). If this interpretation of the poem, as providing a metaphor for the challenges of life, can be generally agreed upon, then one may say that it is a contemplative poem that teaches Christians to be faithful and to maintain their beliefs.

It is told from the point of view of an old seafarer, who is reminiscing and evaluating his life as he has lived it. In lines 1–33a, the seafarer describes the desolate hardships of life on the wintry sea. He describes the anxious feelings, cold-wetness, and solitude of the sea voyage in contrast to life on land where men are surrounded by kinsmen, free from dangers, and full on food and wine. The climate on land then begins to resemble that of the wintry sea, and in lines 33b-66a, the speaker shifts his tone from the dreariness of the winter voyage and begins to describe his yearning for the sea. Time passes through the seasons from winter — “it snowed from the north” (31b) — to spring — “groves assume blossoms” (48a) — and to summer — “the cuckoo forebodes, or forewarns” (53a).

Marsden points out that although at times this poem may seem depressing, there is a sense of hope throughout it. That hope is centered on eternal life in Heaven (221). The poem begins as a narrative of a man’s life at sea and then changes to become a praise of God, thus giving the reader hope. At line 66b, the speaker again shifts, this time not in tone, but in subject matter. The sea is no longer explicitly mentioned; instead the speaker preaches about steering a steadfast path to heaven. He asserts that “earthly happiness will not endure” (line 67), that men must oppose “the devil with brave deeds” (line 76), and that earthly wealth cannot travel to the afterlife nor can it benefit the soul after a man’s death (lines 97-102).

In 1975 David Howlett published a textual analysis which suggested that both The Wanderer and The Seafarer are “coherent poems with structures unimpaired by interpolators”; and concluded that a variety of “indications of rational thematic development and balanced structure imply that The Wanderer and The Seafarer have been transmitted from the pens of literate poets without serious corruption.” With particular reference to The Seafarer, Howlett further added that “The argument of the entire poem is compressed into” lines 58-63, and explained that “Ideas in the five lines which precede the centre” (line 63) “are reflected in the five lines which follow it”. By 1982 Frederick S. Holton had amplified this finding by pointing out that “it has long been recognized that The Seafarer is a unified whole and that it is possible to interpret the first sixty-three-and-a-half lines in a way that is consonant with, and leads up to, the moralizing conclusion.”

In view of the structure and content, as outlined above, it is helpful to think of the seafarer’s narration of his experiences as an exemplum, used to make a moral point; and to persuade his hearers of the truth of his words. It has been proposed that this poem demonstrates the fundamental Anglo-Saxon belief that life is shaped by fate. Another understanding was offered in the Cambridge Old English Reader, namely that the poem is essentially concerned to state: “Let us (good Christians, that is) remind ourselves where our true home lies and concentrate on getting there”




The Seafarer has been translated many times by numerous scholars, poets, and other writers, starting with Benjamin Thorpe in 1842. Between 1842 and 2000 over 60 different versions, in eight languages, have been recorded. The translations can be categorized as tending either to the scholarly or the poetic. American expatriate poet Ezra Pound produced a well-known interpretation of The Seafarer, and his version varies from the original in theme and content. It all but eliminates the religious element of the poem, and addresses only the first 99 lines. (Conway).[1]

However, Pound mimics the style of the original through the extensive use of alliteration, which is a common device in Anglo-Saxon poetry. His interpretation was first published in New Age on November 30th, 1911, and subsequently in his Ripostes in 1912.

Scholarship and criticism[edit]

The Seafarer has attracted the attention of scholars and critics, creating a substantial amount of critical assessment. Many of these studies initially debated the continuity and unity of the poem. One early interpretation was that the poem could be thought of as a conversation between an old seafarer, weary of the ocean, and a young seafarer, excited to travel the high seas. This interpretation arose because of the arguably alternating nature of the emotions in the text. It can seem as if one moment the writer is tired of sea-life, while the next moment he is pining for the salt waves and the open water (2-3). Another argument, in The Seafarer: An Interpretation, by O.S. Anderson, suggested that the poem can be split into three different parts. He names the first part A1, the second part A2, and the third part B. It is possible that the third part was written by someone other than the author of the first two sections. The third part may give an impression of being more influenced by Christianity than the previous parts (12). As early as 1902 W.W. Lawrence had concluded that the poem was a “wholly secular poem revealing the mixed emotions of an adventurous seaman who could not but yield to the irresistible fascination for the sea in spite of his knowledge of its perils and hardships” (Pope, 222).

In later assessments, however, scholars have shifted their viewpoints and have argued that the work is a well-unified monologue. In the arguments for the unity of The Seafarer, scholars have debated the interpretation and translations of words, whether the poem is allegorical, and the meaning of the supposed allegory. John C. Pope and Stanley Greenfield have specifically debated the meaning of the wordsylf in the poem and whether the seafarer’s earlier voyages were voluntary or involuntary. In contrast to Dorothy Whitelock’s claim that the poem is a literal description of the voyages with no figurative meaning, both scholars believe the poem is an allegory. Many scholars, including Whitelock and Pope, have concluded that the poem is about a penitential exile, though Pope believes the poem shows this through allegorical layers and Whitelock through literal description. Greenfield, however, believes that the seafarer’s first voyages are not the voluntary actions of a penitent but rather imposed by a confessor on the sinful seaman.

Though many scholars have commented on the literal and allegorical levels of the poem, some scholars view The Seafarer as more allegorical than literal. In 1971, Daniel G. Calder presented an argument in which The Seafarer is an allegorical poem for the representation of the mind and the elements of the voyages are objective symbols of one in an “exile” state of mind. Contrasted to the setting of the sea is the setting of the land, a state of mind that contains former joys. When the sea and land are joined through the wintry symbols, Calder argues the speaker’s psychological mindset changes. He explains that is when “something informs him that all life on earth is like death. The land the seafarer seeks on this new and outward ocean voyage is one that will not be subject to the mutability of the land and sea as he has known” (268).

In 1982, John F. Vickrey continued Calder’s analysis of The Seafarer as a psychological allegory. Vickrey argued that the poem is an allegory for the life of a sinner through the metaphor of “the boat of the mind,” a metaphor used “to describe, through the imagery of a ship at sea, a person’s state of mind” (251). His arguments disagree with those of Pope and Whitelock, which identify the seafarer as a penitential exile. He argues that if he were a religious exile, then the speaker would have related the “joys of the spirit” (254) and not his miseries to the reader. This reading has received further support from Sebastian Sobecki in 2008, who argues that Whitelock’s interpretation of religious pilgrimage does not conform to known pilgrimage patterns at the time. Instead, he proposes the vantage point of a fisherman. However, the text contains no mention, or indication of any sort, of fishes or fishing; and it is arguable that the composition is written from the vantage point of a fisher of men; that is, an evangelist.

In 1999 Corey Owen produced a comprehensive on-line state-of-the-art critical summary of earlier scholarship, entitled “The Seafarer: A Hypertext Edition”. In Dr Owen’s own words: “In this edition, I offer the reader as much information as possible while staying within the boundaries of a master’s thesis. Although many parts of this edition remain incomplete, it still contains a close and careful representation of the poem’s critical history and a reading edition which allows the reader to choose between a thoroughly edited edition or a transcribed diplomatic text which follows the manuscript lineation.”

See also[edit]


  1. Jump up^ “RPO — Ezra Loomis Pound : The Seafarer”rpo.library.utoronto.ca. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
  • Anderson, O.S. (later O.S.Arngart) The Seafarer: An Interpretation. Lund: C.W.K.Gleerups Förlag, 1937.
  • Brown, Phyllis R. “The Seafarer.” Medieval England: an Encyclopedia. Ed. Paul E. Szarmach, M. Teresa Tavormina, Joel T. Roesenthal. New York: Garland, 1998.
  • The Exeter Book Part Two. (EETS Original Series.) London: Oxford University Press, 1933.
  • Calder, Daniel G. “Setting and Mode in The Seafarer and The Wanderer.” Neuphilologische Mitteilungen; 72 (1971): 264- 275.
  • Cameron, Angus. “Anglo-Saxon Literature.” Dictionary of the Middle Ages. Ed. Joseph R. Strayer. Vol. 1 New York: Scribner, 1982. 274-288.
  • Conway, David. “Ezra Pound.” Wikipedia. 2006. 20 Nov 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ezra_Pound>.
  • Gordon, Ida, ed. The Seafarer. Great Britain: University of Exeter, 1996. Print.
  • Greenfield, Stanley B. “Attitudes and Values in The Seafarer.” Studies in Philology; 51 (1954): 15-20.
  • Greenfield, Stanley B. “Sylf, Seasons, Structure and Genre in The Seafarer.” Old English Shorter Poems: Basic Readings. Ed. Katherine O’Brien O’Keeffe. New York: Garland, 1994. 251-279.
  • Hill, Thomas D. “Wisdom (Sapiential) Literature.” Medieval England: an Encyclopedia. Ed. Paul E. Szarmach, M. Teresa Tavormina, Joel T. Roesenthal. New York: Garland, 1998. 805-807.
  • Holton, Frederick S. “Old English Sea Imagery and the Interpretation of The Seafarer.” Yearbook of English Studies. 1982. Vol 12. 208-217.
  • Howlett, David R. “The Structures of The Wanderer and The Seafarer.” Studia Neophilologica. 1975. Vol 47:2. 313-317.
  • Kennedy, Charles W., trans. Early English Poetry. New York: Oxford UP, 1961.
  • Klinck, Anne L. “Seafarer.” The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England. Ed. Michael Lapidge. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd., 1991. 413.
  • Lancashire, Ian. “Ezra Loomis Pound: The Seafarer.” Representative Poetry Online. 2005. University of Toronto Libraries. 20 Nov 2007 <http://rpo.library.utoronto.ca/poem/1664.html>.
  • Marsden, Richard. The Cambridge Old English Reader. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004
  • Miller, Sean. “The Seafarer.” Anglo Saxons. 1997. 20 Nov 2007 <http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet/?do=get&type=text&id=Sfr>.
  • Orton, P. “The Form and Structure of The Seafarer.” Studia Neophilologica; 63 (1991): 37-55.
  • Pope, John C. “Second Thoughts on the Interpretation of The Seafarer.” Old English Shorter Poems: Basic Readings. Ed. Katherine O’Brien O’Keeffe. New York: Garland, 1994. 213-229.
  • Rumble, Alexander R. “Exeter Book.” Medieval England: an Encyclopedia. Ed. Paul E. Szarmach, M. Teresa Tavormina, Joel T. Roesenthal. New York: Garland, 1998. 285-286.
  • Sobecki, Sebastian. “The Interpretation of The Seafarer: a Re-examination of the Pilgrimage Theory.” <http://www.springerlink.com/content/rl966727157x42q0/?p=2b5e4c89ccfd4cc98d8db832be23d7c5&pi=8>
  • The Seafarer: an Italian translation http://ilmiolibro.it/libro.asp?id=18484
  • “The Seafarer.” Anglo-Saxon Poetry. Trans. & ed. S. A. J. Bradley. London: Dent, 1982. 329-335
  • “The Seafarer.” Old and Middle English c. 890-c. 1400: an Anthology. Ed. Elaine Treharne. Malden: Blackwell, 2004. 48-53.
  • Vickery, John F. “Some Hypotheses Concerning The Seafarer.” Old English Shorter Poems: Basic Readings. Ed. Katherine O’Brien O’Keeffe. New York: Garland, 1994. 251-279.
  • Whitelock, Dorothy. “The Interpretation of The Seafarer.” Essential Articles: Old English Poetry. Ed. Jess. B. Bessinger, Jr. and Stanley J. Kahrl. Hamden: Shoe String Press, Inc., 1968.442-457.
  • Williams, Douglas, “The Seafarer as an Evangelical Poem”. Lore & Language, Vol 8 No 1; Sheffield Academic Press, January 1989. ISSN 0307-7144.

Translation and Annotations of The Seafarer

“The Seafarer

Manuscript: The Exeter Book (preserved in the library of Exeter Cathedral). Editions:Krapp, George Philip, and Elliot Van Kirk Dobbie, eds. The Exeter Book. ASPR 3. New York: Columbia UP, 1936; Gordon, I. L., ed. The Seafarer. 1960. New York: Appleton, 1966 (originally published in Methuen’s Old English Library); Pope, John C., ed. Seven Old English Poems. 2nd ed. New York: Norton, 1981.


About myself I can utter a truth-song,
tell journeys–how I in toil-days
torment-time often endured,
abode and still do 1 ] bitter breast-care,
sought in my ship many a care-hall, 5
horrible waves’ rolling, where narrow night-watch
often has kept me at the ship’s stem
when it dashes by cliffs. Pinched by the cold
were my feet, bound by frost’s
frozen fetters, where those cares sighed 10
hot about heart; hunger within tore
the mind of the sea-weary one. [ ¶ ] That man knows not,
to whom on earth fairest falls,
how I, care-wretched, ice-cold sea
dwelt on in winter along the exile-tracks,15
bereaved both of friend and of kin, 2 ]
behung with rime-crystals. ] Hail showers flew.
I heard nothing there but the sea’s sounding,
ice-cold wave. At times the swan’s song
served me for merriment, gannet’s crying 20
and curlew’s sound instead of men’s laughter,
mew’s singing in place of mead-drink.
Storms there beat stone-cliffs, where starn, ] icy-feathered,
answered and called to them; often the eagle screamed,
dew-feathered fowl: no sheltering kinsman 25
brought consolation to a destitute life.
Indeed, he little believes it, who owns life’s joy–
stayed in towns, had few baleful journeys–
proud and wine-merry, how I, weary,
often on sea-path had to abide. 5 ] 30
Night-shadow darkened; snow fell from the north;
rime bound the soil; on earth hail fell,
coldest of corns. ] [ ¶ ] So, now, thoughts
trouble my heart, that I the deep sea,
play of salt-waves, should venture myself on. 35
Mind’s desire urges, ever and again,
my spirit to fare, that I, far hence,
foreigners’, pilgrims’, homeland should seek.
For there is none so proud in heart over earth,
none so good of his ] gifts nor in youth so keen,40
in deeds so brave, to him lord so loyal,
that ever no sorrow he has of seafaring,
of what the Lord–God’s will–brings him to.
Nor is his thought on harp or on ring-taking,
on woman’s delight or on the world’s hope,45
nor on aught else save the tossing of waves:
he ever has longing 8 ] who hastens on water.
Groves blossom, make fair the dwellings,
brighten the plains–the world hurries forward:
all these urge him, doomed of mind, 9 ]50
his spirit to sojourn on which he so minds,
to depart far on flood-ways.
So the cuckoo urges, mournful of voice 10 ];
summer’s ward sings, forebodes for me sorrow,
bitter in breast-hoard. That one does not know,55
man blessed with comfort, what some 11 ] endure
who widest must lay the tracks of the exile.

Therefore, now, heart turns beyond its breast-chamber,
my mind’s thought with mere-flood,
over the whale’s home, wide in its turning,60
over earth’s regions-comes back to me
eager and greedy. Yells the lone-flyer,
whets on the whale-way spirit quite suddenly
over the holm’s 12 ] deep: hotter to me are
delights of the Lord than this dead life,65
loaned 13 ] on the land. I do not believe
that this earth-weal still stands eternal.
Always one of three things brings into doubt
every affair before its due time:
illness or old age or else edge-hate 14 ]70
wrests life away, fey one fromward.
Therefore, praise of the living, of those speaking after,
is for each noble one best of words left behind–
that he so work, before he must away,
good actions on earth against malice of fiends,75
brace deeds against devils,
that children of men after may praise him,
and his glory hereafter live among angels
always for ever, eternal life’s splendor,
joy among noble ones. [ ¶ ] Days have departed,80
all pride of earth’s kingdom;
now are no kings and no kaisers
nor any gold-givers such as once were,
when they most glorious deeds did among them
and then most lordly lived out their doom. 15 ]85
Wanes all this noble host; joys have departed;
weaker remain and rule this world,
live here afflicted. Glory is humbled,
honor of earth grows old and withers,
as does now every man over this Middle-Earth.90
Old age fares over him; bright face grows pale;
gray-haired, he grieves, knows former friends,
sons of the athelings, given to earth.
Nor may his flesh-home, then, when life is lost to him,
sweet swallow nor sore feel,95
hand stir nor mind think.
Though golden he strews the graves of his brothers,
buries by dead men manifold treasures,
that deed will not go with him 16 ]:
gold is no aid to a soul full of sins100
in face of God’s terror, his awful power,
when he earlier hides it while he lives here.
Much is the Measurer’s power: therefore this earth turns.
He established 17 ] alone sturdy foundations,
surface of earth, height of the heavens.105
Foolish he who fears not his Lord: death comes to him unexpected.
Blessed he who lives humbly: favor to him comes from heaven.
The Measurer establishes his mind, for he believes in His might.
One must steer strong mind, hold it established,
wise in its covenants, clean in its ways.110
Here every man meetly must hold
love with the loved one, with loathed one hate.
Though he will not filled up with fire
or burned up on funeral pyre
friend he has made, Fate is aye stronger,115
Measurer mightier, than any man’s thought.
Let us consider where our true home is;
and then let us think how to come thither;
and then also strive that we indeed come there,
into the blessedness there everlasting,120
where life is long in love of God,
hope in the heavens. So, to the Holy One
thanks that he honored us, master of Glory,
God of Eternity, in all our time. AMEN.

Translation copyright © 1982, Jonathan A. Glenn. All rights reserved.


1 ] abode and still do. This is a compromise between metrical requirements and sense. The original gebiden hæbbe ‘have experienced/abided’ suggests, since it is in the perfect tense, continuing results.

2 ] of friend and kin. OE winemægum: wine ‘friend’ + mæg ‘kinsman’; the compound is usually interpreted ‘dear kinsman’ or some such.

3 ] rime-crystals. OE hrimgicelum appears only here; apparently synonymous with OE is-gicel (> NE icicle) (Gordon).

4 ] starn. OE stearn, “etymologically a variant of modern ‘tern’, which is still known in Norfolk dialect as starn. . .” (Gordon).

5 ] stayed, had to abide (lines 28 and 30). The OE sets up a contrasting parallel here, using essentially the same word–gebiden (28), bidan (30)–for both the town-dweller and the seafarer.

6 ] coldest of corns. “Corn,” of course, refers to grain, not to North American maize.

7 ] good of his gifts. Gordon notes that his gifena þæs god “may mean either ‘generous of gifts’ or ‘good in moral qualities’. . . .”

8 ] longing. ‘Anxiety’ and ‘yearning’ (etc.) are both possible meanings of OElangung.

9 ] doomed of mind. OE fus (here translated ‘doomed’) means both ‘eager’ and ‘doomed,’ that is, ‘dying.’

10 ] mournful of voice. The cuckoo’s song as a lament occurs in OE only here and in the Husband’s Message (“þæt þu lagu drefde, / siþþan þu gehyrde on hliþes oran / galan geomorne geac on bearwe” [that you stir ocean after you have heard on hill’s edge singing the mournful cuckoo in the grove], lines 21b-23); it also appears in Welsh elegy, but nowhere else in NW European literature (Gordon).

11 ] some. Generic: denotes a class of people, defined in the following line (Gordon). One might translate, “what certain people endure.” Note that the poem earlier asserts that sooner or later all must experience life as seafaring.

12 ] holm’s. OE holm ‘ocean.’

13 ] loaned. The OE læne means ‘transitory, fleeting’; some of the qualities of NE loaned are certainly suggested. Læne is cognate with ON lán, from which NE loan is derived.

14 ] illness . . . edge-hate. See Beowulf 1735-39 and 1763-68, where Hroðgar speaks of these same evils. Edge-hate, a simple modernization of OE ecghete, means ‘sword-enmity.’

15 ] doom. OE dom ‘glory, judgment, law, majesty.’ As a suffix, -dom signifies state, condition, particular power, etc. Dom here means the destiny or fate, of the nobles of olden times.

16 ] that deed . . . him. Ambiguous reference (not an uncommon occurrence in OE poetry). Probably the poet suggests both possibilities: (1) that the gold is useless to the dead one in his “travels” and (2) that the deed of giving the gold is worthless to the live one.

17 ] established, etc. Note the verbal linkage here and in the following lines of God as Creator, God as Provider (here of man’s mind), and Man as free moral agent (holding his own mind established). “

Entirely copied from http://lightspill.com/poetry/oe/seafarer.html

Full Text Translation of Deor

  Copyright:  Sean Miller available at http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet

Welund him be wurman [#] Weland himself, by means of worms (swords?),
wræces cunnade, experienced agony,
anhydig eorl the strong-minded noble
earfoþa dreag, endured troubles;
hæfde him to gesiþþe he had for his companions
sorge and longaþ, sorrow and longing,
4a wintercealde wræce, winter-bitter wrack,
wean oft onfond he often found misery
siþþan hine Niðhad on after Niðhad
nede legde, put fetters on him,
swoncre seonobende supple sinew-bonds
on syllan monn. on the better man.
Þæs ofereode, That was overcome,
þisses swa mæg. [#] so may this be.


8a Beadohilde ne wæs Beadohild was not
hyre broþra deaþ as sad in mind
on sefan swa sar for the death of her brothers
swa hyre sylfre þing, as for her own trouble,
þæt heo gearolice she had
ongietan hæfde clearly realized
þæt heo eacen wæs; that she was pregnant;
æfre ne meahte she could never
12a þriste geþencan think resolutely
hu ymb þæt sceolde. of how that would have to (turn out).
Þæs ofereode, That was overcome,
þisses swa mæg. so may this be.


We þæt Mæðhilde [#] We heard that
mone gefrugnon the moans of Matilda,
wurdon grundlease of the lady of Geat,
Geates frige, were numberless
16a þæt hi seo sorglufu so that (her) sorrowful love
slæp ealle binom. entirely deprived of sleep.
Þæs ofereode, That was overcome,
þisses swa mæg. so may this be.


Ðeodric ahte [#] Theodric ruled
þritig wintra for thirty winters
Mæringa burg; the city of the Mærings;
þæt wæs monegum cuþ. that was known to many.
20a Þæs ofereode, That was overcome,
þisses swa mæg. so may this be.


We geascodan We heard
Eormanrices [#] Ermanaric’s
wylfenne geþoht; wolfish thought;
ahte wide folc he ruled widely the people
Gotena rices; of the kingdom of the Goths –
þæt wæs grim cyning. That was a grim king!
24a Sæt secg monig Many a warrior sat,
sorgum gebunden, bound up by cares,
wean on wenan, woes in mind,
wyscte geneahhe wished constantly
þæt þæs cynerices that the kingdom
ofercumen wære. were overcome.
Þæs ofereode, That was overcome,
þisses swa mæg. so may this be.


28a Siteð sorgcearig, He sits sorrowful and anxious,
sælum bidæled, bereft of joy,
on sefan sweorceð, darkening in his mind,
sylfum þinceð he thinks to himself
þæt sy endeleas that (it) is endless
earfoða dæl, the (his) part of troubles;
mæg þonne geþencan then he can consider
þæt geond þas woruld that throughout this world
32a witig Dryhten the wise Lord
wendeþ geneahhe, always goes,
eorle monegum to many men
are gesceawað, he shows honour,
wislicne blæd, sure glory,
sumum weana dæl. to some a share of troubles.


Þæt ic bi me sylfum I, for myself,
secgan wille, want to say this,
36a þæt ic hwile wæs that for a while I was
Heodeninga scop, the scop (bard) of the Hedenings,
dryhtne dyre; dear to my lord;
me wæs Deor noma. [#] my name was Deor.
Ahte ic fela wintra I had for many winters
folgað tilne, a good position,
holdne hlaford, a loyal lord,
oþ þæt Heorrenda nu, until Heorrenda now,
40a leoðcræftig monn, a man skilful in songs,
londryht geþah has taken the estate
þæt me eorla hleo that the protector (hleo) of warriors (eorla)
ær gesealde. before (ær) gave to me.
Þæs ofereode, That was overcome,
þisses swa mæg. so may this be.



line 1a: Welund is better known in English folklore as Wayland the Smith. (Beowulf’s armour was said to be Weland’s work, and King Alfred, in a series of wonderings of where famous things have got to, wonders where are the bones of Weland the wise, the master goldsmith who was most famous in days gone by. A barrow in Oxfordshire is called Wayland’s Smithy to this day.)

An Old Norse poem from the Edda, Völundarkviða, gives us a fuller account of his life. He and his two brothers came upon three swan-maidens on a lake’s shore, and loved them, and lived with them happily for seven years, but then the swan-maidens flew away again. His brothers left, but Weland stayed on the spot, and turned to smithing, and made beautiful gold rings against his wife’s return. King Nithuthr hears of this, steals one of the rings, takes him captive, hamstrings him to keep him prisoner, and keeps him on an offshore island and forces him to make pretty things. Weland takes his revenge by killing Nithuthr’s two sons, cutting off their heads for silver bowls, cutting out their eyes for gemstones, cutting out their teeth for brooches, and presenting these to Nithuthr and his wife. Weland also gets Nithuthr’s daughter Bothvild (Beadohild) with child, though it is unclear whether this is part of malicious revenge — Bothvild is said to weep at Weland’s departure, and Weland insists to Nithuthr that Bothvild is his bride and should not be killed. Finally, Weland, most cunning of smiths, fashions wings and so flies away in spite of his infirmity. Farther than that we cannot follow him.

line 7b: The obvious question one is left asking is what precisely does “Thaes ofereode, thisses swa maeg” mean? A more literal if less compact rendering might be “It was overcome in respect of that, and so it might be in respect of this”. This is ambiguous: you can’t tell whether the speaker hopes that things will work out the same way (“may it be so”) or is simply admitting the possibility (“it may be so”). The same ambiguity exists in the original, down to the same word mæg, which may have meant either.

From the context of the author listing the various heroes and heroines of the Germanic past, who had their troubles but these troubles passed in the end, and then linking his own story into the chain, one gets the impression that the narrator is hoping that just as all these troubles passed away, so he hopes his will too.

It reminds me of Aunt Bee in Josephine Tey’s Brat Farrar, standing in the churchyard after telling the rector her troubles and remembering the rival smiths with their fierce battle back in 1723, who were now sleeping peacefully in the same plot of Clare earth, and thinking that someday her problems too would just be an old song, that it was simply a matter of keeping a sense of proportion. Or indeed of John Cleese as Basil Fawlty having just dealt with some minor difficulties and then remembering that he had had to lock Sybil up in order to sort them out, and going to release her with the dread words, “So far so good; now for the tricky bit.”

line 14a: Maethhild (Matilda) and Geat may have been as famous as Romeo and Juliet in their day, but only a fragment more has survived to ours, and that not from mediaeval sources but from Scandianavian ballads recorded in the nineteenth century. Magnild (Maethhild) wept, apparently, because she foretold she would drown in the river. Gauti (Geat) retorts that he will build a bridge over the river, but she notes that none can flee fate. Sure enough, she is drowned (either falls off the bridge, or the bridge collapses). Gauti calls for his harp, and, like a Germanic Orpheus, plays so well that his wife’s body rises out of the waters. In one version she returns alive; in the darker version, she is dead, but Gauti buries her properly and makes new strings for his harp from her hair.

line 18a: That Theodoric ruled the city of the Maerings for thirty years may have been known to many in the poet’s day, but the details are lost to ours. In this case a ninth-century runic inscription comes to our aid, which notes that nine generations ago a Theodric, lord of the Maerings, landed in Geatland (confusingly, nothing to do with Maethhild’s husband Geat) and was killed there. In the early sixth century there was a Frankish king called Theoderic, and certainly the last battle of the Geatish king Hygelac, Beowulf’s patron, was against the Franks: it may be that we should read a long feud here, barely hinted at. But we have no real details to go on. [For more on the runestone and the possibilities, see Kemp Malone’s Deor.] A good many allusions to nearly lost Germanic myth like this are somewhat like overhearing people talking enthusiastically about a soap opera which you don’t follow yourself — who Edmund and Margaret and Megan are you have no idea, and you aren’t any the wiser from animated conversation about them because the people talking know all the basic details and don’t bother to explain them.

line 21b: Eormenric, on the other hand, is much better known. In history he was a great king of the Ostrogoths, who died in about 375; according to Ammianus Marcellinus, he killed himself out of fear of the invading Huns. According to other Old Norse Eddic poems, Guðrúnarhvöt and Hamðismál, Iormunrekkr (Eormenric) had his wife Svannhildr trampled by horses because he suspected her of having an affair with his son. Unfortunately, Svannhildr was also the daughter of the formidable Guthrun (wife of Sigurthr, more famously known as Siegfried the Dragon-slayer), who incited her sons, Hamthir and Sorli, to go and take revenge, which they did, by cutting off his hands and feet. And so indeed Eormenric’s rule was overcome.

line 37b: Deor has left no trace, and may simply be authorial fiction. Heorrenda, on the other hand, seems to appear (as Horant) in a thirteenth century German epic Kudrun, as a follower of King Hetel. It is said that Horant sang so sweetly that birds fell silent at his song, and fish and animals in the wood fell motionless. “

Entirely copied from http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet

Full Text and Translation of The Seafarer

 Copyright:  Sean Miller available at http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet
Mæg ic be me sylfum I can make a true song
soðgied wrecan, about me myself,
siþas secgan, tell my travels,
hu ic geswincdagum how I often endured
earfoðhwile days of struggle,
oft þrowade, troublesome times,
4a bitre breostceare [how I] have suffered
gebiden hæbbe, grim sorrow at heart,
gecunnad in ceole have known in the ship
cearselda fela, many worries [abodes of care],
atol yþa gewealc, the terrible tossing of the waves,
þær mec oft bigeat where the anxious night watch
nearo nihtwaco often took me
æt nacan stefnan, at the ship’s prow,
8a þonne he be clifum cnossað. when it tossed near the cliffs.
Calde geþrungen Fettered by cold
wæron mine fet, were my feet,
forste gebunden bound by frost
caldum clommum, in cold clasps,
þær þa ceare seofedun where then cares seethed
hat ymb heortan; hot about my heart —
hungor innan slat a hunger tears from within
12a merewerges mod. the sea-weary soul.
Þæt se mon ne wat This the man does not know
þe him on foldan for whom on land
fægrost limpeð, it turns out most favourably,
hu ic earmcearig how I, wretched and sorrowful,
iscealdne sæ on the ice-cold sea
winter wunade dwelt for a winter
wræccan lastum, in the paths of exile,
16a winemægum bidroren, bereft of friendly kinsmen,
bihongen hrimgicelum; hung about with icicles;
hægl scurum fleag. hail flew in showers.
þær ic ne gehyrde There I heard nothing
butan hlimman sæ, but the roaring sea,
iscaldne wæg. the ice-cold wave.
Hwilum ylfete song At times the swan’s song
20a dyde ic me to gomene, I took to myself as pleasure,
ganotes hleoþor the gannet’s noise
ond huilpan sweg and the voice of the curlew
fore hleahtor wera, instead of the laughter of men,
mæw singende the singing gull
fore medodrince. instead of the drinking of mead.
Stormas þær stanclifu beotan, Storms there beat the stony cliffs,
þær him stearn oncwæð, where the tern spoke,
24a isigfeþera; icy-feathered;
ful oft þæt earn bigeal, always the eagle cried at it,
urigfeþra; dewy-feathered;
nænig hleomæga no cheerful kinsmen
feasceaftig ferð can comfort
frefran meahte. the poor soul.
Forþon him gelyfeð lyt, Indeed he credits it little,
se þe ah lifes wyn the one who has the joys of life,
28a gebiden in burgum, dwells in the city,
bealosiþa hwon, far from terrible journey,
wlonc ond wingal, proud and wanton with wine,
hu ic werig oft how I, weary, often
in brimlade have had to endure
bidan sceolde. in the sea-paths.
Nap nihtscua, The shadows of night darkened,
norþan sniwde, it snowed from the north,
32a hrim hrusan bond, frost bound the ground,
hægl feol on eorþan, hail fell on the earth,
corna caldast. coldest of grains.
Forþon cnyssað nu Indeed, now they are troubled,
heortan geþohtas the thoughts of my heart,
þæt ic hean streamas, that I myself should strive with
sealtyþa gelac the high streams,
sylf cunnige — the tossing of salt waves —
36a monað modes lust the wish of my heart urges
mæla gehwylce all the time
ferð to feran, my spirit to go forth,
þæt ic feor heonan that I, far from here,
elþeodigra should seek the homeland
eard gesece — of a foreign people —
Forþon nis þæs modwlonc Indeed there is not so proud-spirited
mon ofer eorþan, a man in the world,
40a ne his gifena þæs god, nor so generous of gifts,
ne in geoguþe to þæs hwæt, nor so bold in his youth,
ne in his dædum to þæs deor, nor so brave in his deeds,
ne him his dryhten to þæs hold, nor so dear to his lord,
þæt he a his sæfore that he never in his seafaring
sorge næbbe, has a worry,
to hwon hine Dryhten as to what his Lord
gedon wille. will do to him.
44a Ne biþ him to hearpan hyge Not for him is the sound of the harp
ne to hringþege nor the giving of rings
ne to wife wyn nor pleasure in woman
ne to worulde hyht nor worldly glory —
ne ymbe owiht elles nor anything at all
nefne ymb yða gewealc; unless the tossing of waves;
ac a hafað longunge but he always has a longing,
se þe on lagu fundað. he who strives on the waves.
48a Bearwas blostmum nimað, Groves take on blossoms,
byrig fægriað, the cities grow fair,
wongas wlitigað, the fields are comely,
woruld onetteð: the world seems new:
ealle þa gemoniað all these things urge on
modes fusne the eager of spirit,
sefan to siþe the mind to travel,
þam þe swa þenceð in one who so thinks
52a on flodwegas to travel far
feor gewitan. on the paths of the sea.
Swylce geac monað So the cuckoo warns
geomran reorde; with a sad voice;
singeð sumeres weard, the guardian of summer sings,
sorge beodeð bodes a sorrow
bitter in breosthord. grievous in the soul.
Þæt se beorn ne wat, This the man does not know,
56a sefteadig secg, the warrior lucky in worldly things
hwæt þa sume dreogað what some endure then,
þe þa wræclastas those who tread most widely
widost lecgað. the paths of exile.
Forþon nu min hyge hweorfeð And now my spirit twists
ofer hreþerlocan, out of my breast,
min modsefa my spirit
mid mereflode, out in the waterways,
60a ofer hwæles eþel over the whale’s path
hweorfeð wide, it soars widely
eorþan sceatas — through all the corners of the world —
cymeð eft to me it comes back to me
gifre ond grædig; eager and unsated;
gielleð anfloga, the lone-flier screams,
hweteð on hwælweg urges onto the whale-road
hreþer unwearnum the unresisting heart
64a ofer holma gelagu. across the waves of the sea.
Forþon me hatran sind Indeed hotter for me are
Dryhtnes dreamas the joys of the Lord
þonne þis deade lif than this dead life
læne on londe. fleeting on the land.
Ic gelyfe no I do not believe
þæt him eorðwelan that the riches of the world
ece stondað. will stand forever.
68a Simle þreora sum Always and invariably,
þinga gehwylce one of three things
ær his tiddege will turn to uncertainty
to tweon weorþeð: before his fated hour:
adl oþþe yldo disease, or old age,
oþþe ecghete or the sword’s hatred
fægum fromweardum will tear out the life
feorh oðþringeð. from those doomed to die.
72a Forþon biþ eorla gehwam And so it is for each man
æftercweþendra the praise of the living,
lof lifgendra of those who speak afterwards,
lastworda betst, that is the best epitaph,
þæt he gewyrce, that he should work
ær he on weg scyle, before he must be gone
fremum on foldan bravery in the world
wið feonda niþ, against the enmity of devils,
76a deorum dædum daring deeds
deofle togeanes, against the fiend,
þæt hine ælda bearn so that the sons of men
æfter hergen, will praise him afterwards,
ond his lof siþþan and his fame afterwards
lifge mid englum will live with the angels
awa to ealdre, for ever and ever,
ecan lifes blæd, the glory of eternal life,
80a dream mid dugeþum. joy with the Hosts.
Dagas sind gewitene, The days are gone
ealle onmedlan of all the glory
eorþan rices; of the kingdoms of the earth;
nearon nu cyningas there are not now kings,
ne caseras nor Cæsars,
ne goldgiefan nor givers of gold
swylce iu wæron, as once there were,
84a þonne hi mæst mid him when they, the greatest, among themselves
mærþa gefremedon performed valorous deeds,
ond on dryhtlicestum and with a most lordly
dome lifdon. majesty lived.
Gedroren is þeos duguð eal, All that old guard is gone
dreamas sind gewitene; and the revels are over —
wuniað þa wacran the weaker ones now dwell
ond þæs woruld healdaþ, and hold the world,
88a brucað þurh bisgo. enjoy it through their sweat.
Blæd is gehnæged, The glory is fled,
eorþan indryhto the nobility of the world
ealdað ond searað, ages and grows sere,
swa nu monna gehwylc as now does every man
geond middangeard. throughout the world.
Yldo him on fareþ, Age comes upon him,
onsyn blacað, his face grows pale,
92a gomelfeax gnornað, the graybeard laments;
wat his iuwine, he knows that his old friends,
æþelinga bearn the sons of princes,
eorþan forgiefene. have been given to the earth.
Ne mæg him þonne se flæschoma His body fails then,
þonne him þæt feorg losað as life leaves him —
ne swete forswelgan he cannot taste sweetness
ne sar gefelan nor feel pain,
96a ne hond onhreran nor move his hand
ne mid hyge þencan. nor think with his head.
Þeah þe græf wille Though he would strew
golde stregan the grave with gold,
broþor his geborenum, a brother for his kinsman,
byrgan be deadum bury with the dead
maþmum mislicum, a mass of treasure,
þæt hine mid wille, it just won’t work —
100a ne mæg þære sawle nor can the soul
þe biþ synna ful which is full of sin
gold to geoce preserve the gold
for Godes egsan, before the fear of God,
þonne he hit ær hydeð though he hid it before
þenden he her leofað. while he was yet alive.
Micel biþ se Meotudes egsa, Great is the fear of the Lord,
forþon hi seo molde oncyrreð; before which the world stands still;
104a se gestaþelade He established
stiþe grundas, the firm foundations,
eorþan sceatas the corners of the world
ond uprodor. and the high heavens.
Dol biþ se þe him his Dryhten ne ondrædeþ: A fool is the one who does not fear his Lord
cymeð him se deað unþinged. — death comes to him unprepared.
Eadig bið se þe eaþmod leofaþ; Blessed is he who lives humbly
cymeð him seo ar of heofonum. — to him comes forgiveness from heaven.
108a Meotod him þæt mod gestaþelað, God set that spirit within him,
forþon he in his meahte gelyfeð. because he believed in His might.
Stieran mon sceal strongum mode, Man must control his passions
ond þæt on staþelum healdan, and keep everything in balance,
ond gewis werum, keep faith with men,
wisum clæne. and be pure in wisdom.
Scyle monna gehwylc Each of men must
mid gemete healdan be even-handed
112a wiþ leofne ond wið laþne with their friends and their foes.
* * * bealo. ?
þeah þe he hine wille ? though he does not wish him
fyres fulne ? in the foulness of flames
oþþe on bæle ? or on a pyre
forbærnedne ? to be burned
his geworhtne wine, ? his contrived friend,
Wyrd biþ swiþre, Fate is greater
116a Meotud meahtigra, and God is mightier
þonne ænges monnes gehygd. than any man’s thought.
Uton we hycgan Let us ponder
hwær we ham agen, where we have our homes
ond þonne geþencan and then think
hu we þider cumen; how we should get thither —
ond we þonne eac tilien and then we should all strive
þæt we to moten that we might go there
120a in þa ecan to the eternal
eadignesse blessedness
þær is lif gelong that is a belonging life
in lufan Dryhtnes, in the love of the Lord,
hyht in heofonum. joy in the heavens.
Þæs sy þam Halgan þonc Let there be thanks to God
þæt he usic geweorþade, that he adored us,
wuldres Ealdor the Father of Glory,
124a ece Dryhten, the Eternal Lord,
in ealle tid. Amen. for all time. Amen.

New Syllabus of Part 1 English Honours of the Vidyasagar University w.e.f. 2014-2015


You can download PDF Version of the New Syllabus of English Honours of Vidyasagar University w.e.f. 2014-2015 from the website of the Vidyasagar University



Paper-I : 100 Marks (90+10)

Paper-II : 100 Marks (90+10)

Paper  1

Full Marks                                                 : 100 marks

Internal Assessment                         : 10 marks

Year-End University Examination           : 90 Marks

Lecture : 100 Hrs.

Tutorial : 20 Hrs.

Paper Structure :-

Group A:       History of the English Language

i)                    Influences: Greek, Latin, Scandinavian, French, American

ii)                  Influences of the Bible, Shakespeare and Milton on the English

iii)                Native Resources in the Development of the English

Group B:        Old and Middle English Literature in Translation

i)                    Social, Cultural & Literary History

ii)                  ‘The Seafarer’, ‘Deor’s Lament’

Or                 Chaucer’s ‘The Nun’s Priest’s tale’

Group C:       Literary Terms & Types

Terms             : 25 terms

Affective Fallacy, Allegory, Ambiguity, Author,Ballad, Bildungsroman, Burlesque, Carpe diem, Dissociation of Sensibility,  Epic,  Epiphany, Imagery, Impressionism,  Intentional Fallacy,  Irony, Ideology,  Marginality, Myth,  Negative Capability, Objective Correlative,Plot-construction, Post-colonialism,  Symbolism, Text,Three Unities.

(Please Choose 25 out of These)

 Types             : Tragedy, Comedy, Lyric, Novel

Group D :      Rhetoric & Prosody

Question Pattern

Group A          :           10 x 1  =          10        (One to be attempted out of Three)

2 x 5    =          10        (Philological notes) (Five to be attempted out of Eight)

5 x 1    =          05        (Short Note) (One to be attempted out of Three)

Group B (i)      :           10 x 1  =          10        (One to be attempted out of Three)

Group B (ii)     :           10 x 1  =          10        (One to be attempted out of Three)

Group C           :          15 x 1  =          15(Literary Type) (One to be attempted out of Three)

5 x 2    =          10 (Literary Terms) (Two to be attempted out of Four)

Group C           :          12 x 1  =          12 (Rhetoric)

8 x 1    =          08 (Prosody)

Recommended Books:

C.L.Wren: The English Language

S.A.J. Bradley: Anglo-Saxon Poetry

Greenfield & Calder: A New Critical History of Old English Literature

Neville Coghill (ed.): The Nun’s Priest’s Tale

Aditi Choudhury:A History of English Literature(Orient Blackswan) 

Paper II   English Literature 1500-1630

Full Marks                                                 : 100 marks

Internal Assessment                         : 10 marks

Year-End University Examination           : 90 Marks

Lecture : 100 Hrs.

Tutorial : 20 Hrs.

 Paper Structure :-

 Gr.A   :           Social, Cultural & Literary History

Gr.B.  :           Drama

Shakespeare: Macbeth (Arden/New Cambridge Shakespeare)

Shakespeare: Twelfth Night (Arden/New Cambridge Shakespeare)

Marlowe: Edward II (Edited by Tancock/Roma Gill)

Philip Weller Annonated Shakespeare Series: Macbeth and Twelfth Night (Orient Blackswan)

 Gr.C    :           Poetry & Prose

Poetry :           Wyatt  : Renouncing of Love

Sidney: Loving in Truth

Spenser: One day I wrote Her Name

Shakespeare: Sonnet no 18, 60 &130 (Arden/New Cambridge Shakespeare)

 Lady Mary Wroth: Sonnet 21 from

Pamphilia to Amphilanthus

Donne: The Sun-rising

Herbert: The Pulley

Prose:             Bacon: Of Death, Of Friendship (Editions by SukantaChoudhuri/Selby)

Question Pattern

Group A          :           10 x 1  =          10        (One to be attempted out of Three)

Group B           :           15 x 2  =          30        (One to be attempted out of Three)

10 x 1  =          10        (One to be attempted out of Three)

5 x 1    =          05        (One to be attempted out of Three)

Group C           :          15 x 1  =          15        (One to be attempted out of Three)

10 x 1  =          10        (One to be attempted out of Three)

5 x 2    =          10        (Two to be attempted out of Four)

Internal Assessment :   10        =          10

 Question Pattern :

Two Long Questions to be attempted from Drama out of Six (Two to be set from each play):            15 x 2  = 30 One Long Question to be attempted from Poetry out of Two/Three                        :                       15 x 1  = 15

One Semi-Long Question to be attempted from Essay out of Two/Three        :                       10 x 1=  10

One Semi-Long Question to be attempted from Drama out of Two/Three       :                       10 x 1=  10

One Semi-Long Question to be attempted from Social, Cultural & Literary History out of Two:         10 x 1=  10

Two Short Questions/Commentaries to be attempted from Poetry & Essay together out of  Six :           5 x 2=  10

(Four Questions are to be set from Poetry & Two from essay)

One Short Question/Commentary to be attempted from Drama of  Three                               :             5 x 1=  05

(One Question to be set from each play)

Recommended Books:

Douglas Bush: Preface to Renaissance Literature

Hardin Craig: The Enchanted Glass

Pramod Nayar: English Poetry from Elizabethans to Restorations (Orient Blackswan)